Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 February ; 40(2): 516–533. doi:10.1007/s10439-011-0454-7.

     The Nuts and Bolts of Low-level Laser (Light) Therapy
     Hoon Chung1,2, Tianhong Dai1,2, Sulbha K. Sharma1, Ying-Ying Huang1,2,3, James D.
     Carroll4, and Michael R. Hamblin1,2,5

     1 Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
     2 Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
     3 Aesthetic and Plastic Center of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of
     4 Thor Photomedicine Ltd, 18A East Street, Chesham HP5 1HQ, UK
     5 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA


     The almost complete lack of reports of side effects or adverse events associated with LLLT
     gives security for issues of safety that will be required.

     We believe that LLLT will steadily progress to be better accepted by both the medical
     profession and the general public at large. The number of published negative reports will
     continue to decline as the optimum LLLT parameters become better understood, and as
     reviewers and editors of journals become aware of LLLT as a scientifically based therapy.
     On the clinical side, the public’s distrust of big pharmaceutical companies and their products
     is also likely to continue to grow. This may be a powerful force for adoption of therapies
     that once were considered as “alternative and complementary,” but now are becoming more
     scientifically accepted.



Volume 18, Number 3, 2015, pp. 317-322 © Medknow Publications and Media Pvt. Ltd doi:10.4103/0971-9784.159800

LiteCure® Laser Used in Study

Assessment of Feasibility and Efficacy of Class IV Laser Therapy for Postoperative Pain Relief in Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Patients: A Pilot Study.

Anil Karlekar1, Saswata Bharati1, Ravindra Saxena1, Kanchan Mehta2
1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Physiotherapy, Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi, India

Background: Laser therapy, for its established analgesic properties with minimal side effects, has been used for the treatment of chronic pain. However, it has not been used for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of Class IV laser on postoperative pain relief following off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCABG) surgery, as a component of multimodal analgesia (MMA) technique.

Methods: This open observational prospective study comprised of 100 adult patients (84 male, 16 female) who underwent OPCABG through sternotomy. For postoperative analgesia, they were subjected to laser therapy in addition to the standard institutional pain management protocol comprising of IV infusion/bolus of tramadol and paracetamol and fentanyl bolus as rescue analgesic.  Pain intensity was measured by Verbal Rating Scale (VRS). The laser therapy was scheduled as once a day regime for three consecutive postoperative days (PODs) starting on POD 1, 30 min following tracheal extubation. The subsequent laser applications were also scheduled at the same time of the day as on day 1 if VRS was ≥ 5. 10 W Class IV laser was applied over 150 cm2 sternal wound area for 150 s. VRS was used to assess pain severity and was recorded for statistical analysis using Friedman Test.

Results: The mean (standard deviation [SD]) VRS of all the 100 patients just before application of the first dose of laser was 7.31 (0.94) while on MMT; the same fell to 4.0 (1.279) and 3.40 (2.697) at 1 h and 24 h respectively following first dose of laser. The change of VRS over first 24 h among all the 100 patients was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Laser was re-applied in 40 patients whose VRS was ≥ 5 (mean [SD] - 6.38 [0.868]) at 24th h. After receiving the 2nd dose of laser the VRS scores fell significantly (P = 0.000) and became 0 at 54th h. No patients required 3rd dose of the laser. No patient required rescue analgesic while on laser therapy.

Conclusion: Class IV laser can be an effective technique for postoperative analgesia following OPCABG surgery through sternotomy when included as a component of MMA technique.